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Thread: Venus is Venus & Mars is Mars and never the Orbits shall meet. The Sex Gap

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    Persona Oblongata OrionzRevenge's Avatar
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    Venus is Venus & Mars is Mars and never the Orbits shall meet. The Sex Gap

    It has been the recognition laugh getter of hetero comedians for centuries, and seems to me to be in full bloom around here of late.

    To a Darwinian it makes absolute perfect sense that the sexes are hard-wired to a point where a meeting of the minds is nigh impossible.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurosc...er_differences


    According to neuropsychiatrist Louann Brizendine in her book The Female Brain (book), she discusses how there is no such thing as a unisex brain. It is argued that gender influences emotion, memory, vision, hearing, olfaction, social perception, pain perception, spatial skills, verbal skills, neurotransmitter levels, and many behavioral disorders. Psychological gender differences are thought by some to reflect the interaction of genes, hormones and social learning on brain development throughout the lifespan. Some evidence from brain morphology and function studies indicates that male and female brains cannot always be assumed to be identical from either a therapeutic or functional perspective.


    Oxytocin
    Oxytocin is a hormone that induces contraction of the uterus and lactation in mammals. It is also a characteristic hormone of nursing mothers. Studies have found that oxytocin improves spatial memory. Through activation of the MAP kinase pathway, oxytocin plays a role in the enhancement of long-term synaptic plasticity, which is a change in strength between two neurons over a synapse that lasts for minutes or longer, and long-term memory. Consequently, this hormone helped mothers remember the location of distant food sources so they could better nurture their offspring


    Sexual Selection
    Females show enhanced information recall compared to men. This may be due to the fact that females' approach to mate competition is a lot less physical and more focused on mental and cognitive based reasoning. For example, the ability to recall information better than men most likely originated from sexual selective pressures on females during competition with other females in mate selection. Recognition of social cues was an advantageous characteristic because it ultimately maximized offspring and was therefore selected for during evolution.

    It is thought that male and female differences in learning ability have contributed to sexual selection and mate preference throughout evolution. Females prefer males that exhibit "enhanced learning ability" because that shows that they can adapt to the changing environment well and increase their chances of survival. Brain structures associated with learning ability, such as the hippocampus, are resultantly prone to sexual selection over time. The hippocampus has even been found to exhibit seasonal activity in some mammals where it is active during breeding periods but inactive during hibernation; this is because spatial learning is more present during the breeding season



    Hemisphere differences
    ...However, in 2013, researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania mapped notable differences in male and female neural wiring. The study, which used Functional magnetic resonance imaging, concluded that inter-hemispheric connectivity was much stronger in women's and girls' brains, whereas intra-hemispheric connectivity was much stronger in the brains of men and boys.


    Amygdala
    Several functional differences have been observed in the male and female amygdala as well. One functional difference is emotional memory retention. On average, women retain emotional memories more vividly than do men. Sometimes, however, this can have a negative effect on women and they may have impaired memory at times due to strong emotional overlap.


    Hippocampus
    Several studies have shown the hippocampi of men and women to differ anatomically, neurochemically, and also in degree of long-term potentiation. Such evidence indicates that sex should influence the role of the hippocampus in learning. One experiment examined the effects of stress on Pavlovian conditioning performance in both sexes and found that males’ performance under stress was enhanced while female performance was impaired.


    Oestradiol
    Oestradiol has been found to influence hippocampal development. Studies have shown neurogenesis, or the formation of new neurons, to be higher in the male hippocampus than in that of the female. This may be due to the lower levels of estradiol in the male brain compared to the female brain. providing a more optimal environment for neurogenesis.


    Limbic brain
    The limbic brain displays sexual asymmetries. A brain region closely associated with the limbic system known as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VPMC), plays a key role in social emotional processing. In accordance with the sexual dimorphism of the amygdala, the right VPMC is more dominant in an active limbic system for males while the left is more dominant in females. These differences carry out to a behavioral level. For example, Koscik et al. wrote:

    "A man with a unilateral right VMPC lesion, who was well educated and had worked successfully as a minister, was entirely unable to return to any form of gainful employment after his brain damage. He requires supervision for daily tasks and demonstrates severe disturbances in behavior and emotional regulation, including impulsivity and poor judgment. By contrast, a man with a unilateral left VMPC lesion was able to return to his job at a grain elevator and remains successfully employed there. He is remarkably free of disturbances to his social life and emotional functioning"

    In addition, a study where a group of individuals were asked to engage in a Trust Game, "a neuroeconomics task game" found that men and women who exhibited lesions in their right and left VPMC's had less trust in others.


    Orbital prefrontal cortex
    Positron emission tomography studies have shown that men and women ranging from the ages of 19 to 32 years old metabolize glucose at significantly different rates in the orbital prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, MRI images display reduced hemispheric brain volumes, specifically in the frontal and temporal regions, in men more so than women. Infant males who exhibited lesions on their orbital prefrontal cortex struggled with object reversal experiments, but females exhibiting such lesions did not have impaired performance in object reversal.


    Wiring
    On the basis of diffusion tensor imaging of 1,000 brain scans it has been shown that significant differences in wiring exist between male and female brains. Men's brains were shown to have stronger connections between the front and back regions of the brain, and were mostly confined to individual hemispheres, whereas women's brain had stronger connections between the left and right hemispheres.[9] The obtained maps of neural circuitry were supportive of old stereotypes according to which men's brains are more suited for perception and coordination, and women's brains are more suited for social skills and multitasking.[9] The detected differences in neural connectivity were negligible up to the age of 13, but became much more prominent in the 14-17 year-olds.


    Hormones
    Steroid hormones have several effects on brain development as well as maintenance of homeostasis throughout adulthood. One effect they exhibit is on the hypothalamus, where they increase synapse formation.[20] Estrogen receptors have been found in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, indicating the estrogen plays a role in brain development. Gonadal hormone receptors have also been found in the basal forebrain nuclei.
    IN SUMMATION:

    There ain't no Good Guys
    There ain't no Bad Guys
    There's only You & Me
    and we just Disagree.


  2. #2
    igKnight Hephaestus's Avatar
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    This seems like an interesting place to mention virions.

    First, my underlying premise is that in looking at 'simpler' life forms, we can make a fuzzy look back in evolution. If you don't accept that premise, the rest of this is garbage, and you can move on. If you do accept the premise, then some interesting and disturbing ideas come forth, which may well still be garbage. I invite more knowledgeable deconstruction.

    Virions are predatory--they have to be or they die out. The structure of a virion though, is horrifyingly interesting. They have appendages. There are two specific types of appendages I want to direct your attention to--well, really one, but the other type is how they get to use the other, and it adds to the drama. The first type of appendage is designed to clamp onto whatever their target single celled thingy might be: bacteria, white blood cells, etc. They clamp on so the second type of appendage can be brought into play.

    The second type of appendage is like a microscopic syringe. It's used to inject the virion's genetic material into the target host organism. This results in the target host's organelles and RNA structures treating the immigrant DNA like indigent DNA. The end result is it makes more virions for the virion, but with some elements of the host organism, thus leading to the virion's well known edge in getting biodiversity.

    I posit the second type of appendage is a penis based on Elementary Duck Taxonomy, and that virions and bacteria are prototypes for sexual reproduction. Over time, repeated violations by virions results descendant virions that share increasing amounts of DNA with the target host whatever. Over time, evolution removes the ability of the original target host to reproduce on it's own, and creates a dependency on virion biased organisms for reproduction. This is when the organism becomes an organism that reproduces sexually.

    Over time, this leads to organisms that reproduce through traumatic insemination (see bedbugs), and because that method is extremely risky, evolution turns toward weakening the need for that trauma (or rather, that is a logical evolutionary result: no pathetic fallacy intended). There are a few paths to safer sexual reproduction. One is laying eggs that are later fertilized. Another is a hymen.

    The hypothesis accounts for a spectrum of sexual orientation--male at the virion end, female at the host end. It even accounts for internal sexual identification being different from genital identification: a bias toward virion-type genetics would lean male even if the genitals didn't, and likewise for host biased genes other than genitalia for women.

    What does this imply? The ancestor of sexual behavior is non-consensual sexual behavior. Whether or not modern PIV represents the same thing--well, I'd like to think that modern sexual behaviors can be as different from virion reproduction as people are different from bacteria--but I sympathize with thinking it's too close to that ancestry for comfort. The parallel is definitely squicky.
    Last edited by Hephaestus; 05-10-2014 at 11:47 AM.

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    Persona Oblongata OrionzRevenge's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Hephaestus View Post
    This seems like an interesting place to mention virons.

    ....
    I'm not sure I see the connection to a Sexual Mental Dichotomy???

    BTW it's spelled Virions

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    igKnight Hephaestus's Avatar
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    ^^^Spelling observation noted. Wonder why that second 'i' so consistently escaped me. I did have a wandering eye as a kid, but got it fixed. Now I guess it's back and it's viral. Watch out.

    The connection is a hypothesized dichotomy between preponderance of host-like genes (female) and virion-like genes (male). I'm not saying it's the only thing that shaped the sexual mental dichotomy, just that it's a non-trivial underlying factor. Obviously, we're talking about an enormous span of time with myriad different factors in play. I'm implying that there could be a non-trivial connection and influence from this proposed idea of sexual evolution.

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    Shiny and New Charde's Avatar
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    Well, we haven't discussed any of the individual claims in the OP, but reviews of Brizendine's book were very heated and very mixed when it came out, if I recall.

    For example:
    Nature called The Female Brain a "melodrama" "riddled with scientific errors" and "fail[ing] to meet even the most basic standards of scientific accuracy and balance" and that "human sex differences are elevated almost to the point of creating different species, yet virtually all differences in brain structure, and most differences in behaviour, are characterized by small average differences and a great deal of male–female overlap at the individual level".
    "Psychoneuroindoctrinology". Young and Balaban. (Nature 443(7112), p. 634, October 2006

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    Persona Oblongata OrionzRevenge's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Hephaestus View Post

    The connection is a hypothesized dichotomy between preponderance of host-like genes (female) and virion-like genes (male). I'm not saying it's the only thing that shaped the sexual mental dichotomy, just that it's a non-trivial underlying factor. Obviously, we're talking about an enormous span of time with myriad different factors in play. I'm implying that there could be a non-trivial connection and influence from this proposed idea of sexual evolution.
    Several times over at the old world, I pondered aloud about the notion that Viruses possibly originated as Bacterial Conjugation seeking evolutionary advantage that fell victim to sex cancer.

    In BC, a bacteria recognizes surface antigens on another as indicating the other has acquired/invented a useful gene the former lacks. Thus, it connects the to this stranger in the night via sex duct (Pilus) and the useful plasmid is replicated and passed to the latter.



    My little pet theory is that an industrious bacteria struck upon the idea of species advantage by sex across space & time.

    Once having a request for a plasmid tendered, it would thereafter (In a prudent regulated way) shed pilus stems with the popular plasmid inside.

    Naturally, one of the favorite request is for the sex-over-space-&-time gene.

    At some point the genetic instructions for regulation mutated to non-function.


    Anyways, original sin seems to be a 'female' covet.


    The notions of Sexual Aggression and Sexual Assault are human social inventions that are nowhere supported in nature (that I'm aware of).

    Most often in sexual dimorphism where the male is built a brute, one expects to see behavior that is a bit impolite about pollination of the petals.


    Nature says be fruitful and multiply, and in species where there is male mediated sexual selection...
    The tools of the trade are limited most times to being a tool.

    Overall, I agree that, be it male or female mediated sexual selection, sexual behavior is obviously a predominate influence on sexual hard-wiring.

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    Persona Oblongata OrionzRevenge's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Charde View Post
    Well, we haven't discussed any of the individual claims in the OP, but reviews of Brizendine's book were very heated and very mixed when it came out, if I recall.

    For example:
    Ouch!

    For the record, the various claims in the OP are from the wiki and are independent from the book itself. And each topical reference has one or more footnote citations. The link to each can also be found on the wiki.

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    Senior Member skip's Avatar
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    So many people invested in the idea that there's this huge Grand Canyon between women and men have a monetary component motivating them to do so that it's difficult to give their ideas any legitimacy.
    Yes, I smell like a horse. No, I don't consider that a problem.

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    Sysop Ptah's Avatar
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    We are all sentient human beings. We all breathe, bleed, think, feel, observe, act, live and die. That's the essential basis on which, if we properly apply ourselves, we can all meet in the middle qua have a "meeting of the minds".

    I'm not saying there aren't physical (and perhaps neurological) differences between the genders*. I'm saying that these differences are inessential and irrelevant to our ability to communicate and agree.

    * That is: So what. There may be physical and neurological differences between any two individual human beings, gender irrelevant. There is a "gap" between any people people. So what. We all have the sentience by which to cross that gap through expressing and understanding in reference to what we all share, our humanity in the context of reality qua causality.

    To preoccupy with the differences between men and women as a basis for our disagreements and misunderstandings is a self-fulfilling prophecy, if you ask me. Nevermind wrong and evasive of reality.

  10. #10
    Your Huckleberry lethe's Avatar
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    I believe you will find more difference between two randomly chosen males (or two randomly chosen females) than between the "average female" and the "average male".

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